ALBERT EINSTEIN

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         This German physicist is considered one of the world’s greatest thinkers in history. Not only did he shape the way people think of time, space, matter, energy, and gravity but he also was a supporter of Zionism and peaceful living.

        Einstein was born on March 14, 1879 in Ulm, Germany, and spent most of his youth living in Munich, where his fami­ly owned a small shop. He attended schooling in Munich, which he found unimaginative and dull. In addition to this, he taught himself Euclidean geometry at the age of 12. Later his family was forced to move to Milan, Italy where he then decided to withdraw from school at the age of 15. Eventually, he realized that he had to finish secondary school. On the other hand, he still often skipped class to study physics on his own.

        At age 22, he became a Swiss citizen and in 1903 married a woman, named Mileva Marec. In a few years, two sons were born but in 1919 he divorced as to marry his cousin. On the other hand, he published five major research papers at the age of 26. The first one will get him his doctorate in 1905.

          The first paper was on Brownian motion, which would get him his doctorate in 1905.

         The second paper laid the base of the photon, or quantum theory of light. It said that light is made off separate packets of energy, titled quanta or photons. The paper remade the the­ory of light. Also explaining the emissions of electrons from some solid objects when they are struck by light. Televisions are practical applications of Einstein’s discoveries.

         The third paper, which he began as an essay at age 16, con­tained the «special theory of relativity». He showed that time and motion are relative to the observer, and the speed of light is constant and natural laws are the same everywhere in the universe.

          The fourth was a mathematical addition to the special the­ory of relativity. This is where he presented his famous E = me2, also known as the energy mass equivalence.

         His fifth paper was his general theory of relativity. In which he proposed that gravity is not a force, a previously ac­cepted theory but it’s a curved field in the space-time continu­um created in the presence of mass.

         In 1921, Einstein won the Nobel Prize for physics for the confirmation of his general theory of relativity although the other papers where still considered controversial.

        In 1933, he moved to the USA where he became a citizen in 1940. Einstein died in Princeton, NJ, on April 18, 1955.

 

 

 

 

QUESTIONS:

1.  What is Albert Einstein famous for?

2. Why did Albert usually skip classes usually?

3. Why did Albert Einstein get doctorate in 1905?

4. Why was Einstein’s second paper important?

5. What did the third paper contain?

6. What was presented in the fourth paper?

7. What theory did Einstein propose in his fifth paper?

8. What did Albert Einstein win the Nobel Prize for?

 

 

 

VOCABULARY:

to consider — считать

gravity — гравитация

supporter — сторонник

dull — скучный, занудный

Euclidean geometry — евклидова геометрия

to move to — переехать куда-либо

to with draw (past withdrew, p.p. withdrawn) — уходить

to skip — пропускать (уроки )

photon — фотон

quantum theory of light — квантовоя теория света

emissions of electrons — испускание электронов

solid objects — твердые тела

theory of relativity — теория относительности

motion — движение

observer — наблюдатель

natural laws — законы природы

universe — Вселенная

energy mass equivalence — эквивалентность массы и энергии

curved field — искривленное поле

confirmation — подтверждение

controversial — спорный

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