THE ANGLO-SAXON INVASION

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           When Roman legions came back to Rome to defend it, Britain was left to defend and rule itself. The time had come for new rulers and new rulers came. They were Angles, Saxons and Jutes. They came from the territory of present Denmark and Northern Germany. The Germanic invaders first arrived in small groups throughout the fifth century. Being terrific warriors, they controlled most of the island by the seventh century A.D., ousted the British population to the mountainous parts of the Isle of Great Britain. Later, they united and became the Anglo-Saxons.

            The Anglo-Saxons controlled the central part of Britain which was called as England, while the Romanized Celts fled West, talking with them their culture, language and Christianity. England was a network of small kingdoms. That time there were seven kingdoms established: Essex (East Saxons), Sussex (South Saxons), Wessex (West Saxons), East Anglia (East Angels), Kent, Mersia and Northumbria, and the largest three of them – Northumbria, Mercia and Wessex – dominated the country at different time.

            The southern part of Britain became known as Angieland or England. That time the Anglo-Saxons followed their old Germanic religions. Pope Gregory 1 decided to convert the Anglo-Saxon population to Christianity. In 597 A.D. there was sent a mission of 41 monks under the leadership of the monk Augustine. By 700 A.D., all England was Christian. The Pope became a head of the Church. They built many monasteries in England and those monasteries became centers of religion and culture.

            The Anglo-Saxon kings were elected by the members of the Council and they ruled with the advice of the councilors, the great men of the kingdom. In time, it became the custom to elect a member of the royal family, and the power of the king grew parallel to the size and the strength of his kingdom. In return for the support of his subjects, - who gave him free labour and military service, paid taxes and duties – the King gave them his protection and granted lands.

 

 

 

QUESTIONS:

 

1.        Why did Roman legions come back to Rome?

2.        What happened to England when Roman legions came back to Rome?

3.        Who became new rulers of the country when Roman legions came back to Rome?

4.        When did the Germanic invaders first arrive to the Isle?

5.        How many small kingdoms were founded?

6.        Who decided to convert the Anglo-Saxon population to Christianity?

 

 

 

VOCABULARY:

 

to defend – защищать(ся)

to rule – править, управлять

Angles – англы

Saxons – саксы

Jutes – юты

Denmark – Дания

invader – завоеватель, захватчик

to arrive – прибывать, достигать

through out – повсюду, на всем протяжении

terrific – прекрасный, отличный

warrior  - воин; боец; воитель

to oust – выгонять, занимать (чье-л.) место; вытеснять; свергать, устранять

isle – остров

to flee (past fled, p.p. fled) – убегать, спасаться бегством

network – сеть

kingdom – королевство, царство

to establish – основывать

monk – монах

to grow (grew, grown) – расти, увеличиваться

strength – сила, мощь

support – поддержка

labour – труд; работа, задание

to garant – дарить, жаловать, даровать; предоставлять

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