A BRIEF HISTORY OF CAMBRIDGE

Скачать русский перевод текстов будет доступно после оплаты.

Выберите подходящий тариф.
Ссылка на скачивание появится здесь после оплаты.

Тариф "Недельный завал"

Возможность скачивать и просматривать все материалы в течении 1 недели.

Цена: 100 руб.
Тариф "2-х недельный прогул"

Возможность пользоватся всеми материалами сайта в течении 2 недель!

Цена: 500 руб.
Тариф "Месячный улет"

Возможность пользоватся всеми материалами сайта в течении 1-го месяца!

Цена: 1000 руб.
100 руб.

               Cambridge was founded in 875 when the Danes conquered Eastern England. They created a fortified town called a burh, from which the world borough derives. Cambridge was surrounded by a ditch and an earth rampart with a wooden palisade on top. However in 1010 Cambridge was burned by the Danes. That was an easy task when all the buildings were of wood.

                By the 10th century Cambridge was also the administrative centre for the area and so it was a town of some importance, although it would seem tiny to us. By 1086 Cambridge probably had a population of about 2,000. By the standards of the time it was a medium sized town.

                Later in the Middle Ages the population of Cambridge probably rose to about 3,000. In 1068 William the Conqueror visited Cambridge and ordered that a castle br built there. At first it was of wood but in the 12th century, it was rebuilt in stone. The town of Cambridge was severely damaged by a fire in 1174. Fire was a constant hazard when most buildings were of wood with thatched roofs. Another fire raged in Cambridge in 1385.

                In the Middle Ages Cambridge had a weekly market and by the early 13th century it also had a fair. In those days fairs were like markets but they were held only once a year for the period of few days. People came from all over Eastern England at Cambridge fair. Cambridge prospered because it was located on the river Cam.

              In Cambridge there was a leather industry. But the 15th century there was also a wool industry.

              In 1728 it was estimated that the population of Cambridge was more then 6,000, 1,600 of whom were inhabitants of the university. By the standards of that time Cambridge was a big town. The first newspaper in Cambridge appeared in 1744. The first bank in Cambridge was opened in 1780.

              The railway reached Cambridge in 1845. It stimulated the growth of industry in Cambridge by connecting the town to a huge market in London. From the late 19th century a new industry of making scientific instruments grew up in Cambridge. Cambridge gained gas light in 1823.

              From 1880 horse drawn trams ran in the streets of Cambridge. The first electricity was generated in Cambridge in 1893.

             In the 20th century the university, while still important did not dominate Cambridge. New industries of electronics grew up. Making surgical and scientific instruments was also important.

              Cambridge was made a city in 1951. The first cinema in Cambridge opened in 1910.

              Today Cambridge has a population of 109,000 people.

 

 

 

QUESTIONS:

 

1.      When was Cambridge founded?

2.      Who created a fortified town called a burh?

3.      What population had Cambridge by 1086?

4.      Who visited Cambridge in 1068?

5.      What happened in Cambridge in 1174 and 1385?

6.      When did they begin to hold fairs?

7.      Why did Cambridge prosper at that time?

8.      When did the wool industry appear in Cambridge?

9.      When did the first newspaper appear in Cambridge?

10.  When was the first bank opened in Cambridge?

11.  When did the railway reach Cambridge?

12.  When did the first electricity appear in Cambridge?

13.  When did Cambridge become a city?

14.  How many people live in Cambridge nowadays?

 

 

 

VOCABULARY:

 

to found – начинать строительство, закладывать; основывать

to conquer – завоевывать, покорять; порабощать; подчинять; подавлять

fortified town – укрепленный город

borough – городок, небольшой город

to surround – окружать; обступать

ditch – канава, ров; канал

rampart – (крепостной) вал

tiny – крошечный

to rise (past rose, p.p. risen) – увеличиваться, возрастать

William the Conqueror – Уильям, Вильям Завоеватель

to build (past built, p.p. built) – строить

severely – строго, сурово; жестоко

to damage – повреждать, портить, наносить ущерб

hazard – случайное событие, стихийное бедствие

thatched roof – соломенные крыши

to rage – бушевать, свирепствовать

fair – ярмарка

to hold (past held, p.p. held) – зд. Проводить

to prosper – процветать

leather industry – производство кожи, промышленность по производству кожи

wool industry – промышленность по производству шерсти

to estimate – оценивать, производить оценку

inhabitant – житель

to reach – достигать, доходить

to stimulate – усиливать деятельность, стимулировать

huge – большой, гигантский, громадный, огромный

to grow up (past grew, p.p. grown) – вырастать

to gain – получать, приобретать, добиваться

horse drawn tram– трамвай на лошадиной тяге

electricity – электричество

surgical – хирургический

Скачать русский перевод текстов будет доступно после оплаты.

Выберите подходящий тариф.
Ссылка на скачивание появится здесь после оплаты.

Тариф "Недельный завал"

Возможность скачивать и просматривать все материалы в течении 1 недели.

Цена: 100 руб.
Тариф "2-х недельный прогул"

Возможность пользоватся всеми материалами сайта в течении 2 недель!

Цена: 500 руб.
Тариф "Месячный улет"

Возможность пользоватся всеми материалами сайта в течении 1-го месяца!

Цена: 1000 руб.
Перейти в основной раздел:
Яндекс.Метрика Запчасти для снегоуборщиков