CANADA (2)

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           Canada is situated on the north of Northern America, washed by the Atlantic Ocean in the east, the Pacific Ocean in the west, and the Arctic Ocean in the north and in the north­east by the Baffin Bay and the Davis Strait, which separate it from Greenland. In the south and in the north Canada borders on the USA. It is a land of vast distances and rich natural resources. Canada became a self-governing dominion in 1867 while retaining ties to the British crown. Canada’s territory is the world’s second largest country, surpassed in size only by Russia. It includes many islands, notably the Canadian Arc­tic Islands, also called Arctic Archipelago in the Arctic Ocean. Economically and technologically the nation has developed in parallel with the US, its neighbour to the south. The total area is about 10 million sq km. Canada is slightly larger than the US. It is an important manufacturer, and its major cities, such as Toronto, Montreal, Vancouver, Ottawa, Edmonton, Calgary and Winnipeg are centres of commerce and industry.

           The climate of Canada varies from temperate in the south to subarctic and arctic in the north. The highest Canadian point is Mount Logan 5,959 m. The population of Canada is about 32 million people. There are two state languages: English and French. English is spoken by 60 % of population; French is spoken by 23 % of people.

            Most of Canada’s inhabitants live in the southern part of the country and vast areas of the north are sparsely inhabi­ted. The country is divided into ten provinces (Alberta, Bri­tish Columbia, Manitoba, New Brunswick, Newfoundland, Nova Scotia, Ontario, Prince Edward Island, Quebec, Saska­tchewan) and three territories (Northwest Territories, Yukon Territory, Nunavut Territory). The third territory called Nunavut, to be carved from the present Northwest Territo­ries, was created in 1999.

            The name Canada is derived from an Iroquoian term mean­ing «village».

            Among the great rivers of Canada there are the Saint Lawrence River, draining the Great Lakes and emptying into the Gulf of Saint Lawrence; the Ottawa and the Saguenay ri­vers, the principal affluents of the Saint Lawrence River; the Saint John River, emptying into the Bay of Fundy.

           The government type is confederation with parliamentary democracy. The capital of Canada is Ottawa.

           Canada became independent from the United Kingdom on July, 1, 1867. Legal system is based on the English common law, except in Quebec, where civil law system based on the French law prevails.

The racial and ethnic makeup of the Canadian people is di­versified. About 35 percent of the population is composed of people of the British origin. People of the French origin total about 25 percent of the population. The vast majority of French-speaking Canadians reside in Quebec, where they make up about three-fourths of the population; large numbers also live in Ontario and New Brunswick.

            French-speaking Canadians maintain their language, cul­ture, and traditions, and the federal government follows the policy of a bilingual and bicultural nation. During the 1970s and 1980s the proportion of Asians among the Canadian po­pulation increased, and today those who count their ancestry as wholly Asian make up 8 to 10 percent of the population. More than two-thirds of the Asian immigrants live in Ontario or British Columbia. The remainder of the population is com­posed of people of various ethnic groups, such as German, Ita­lian, Ukrainian, Netherlands Dutch, Scandinavian, Polish, Hungarian, Greek, and Native American. Blacks have never constituted a major segment of the Canadian population. In­digenous people make up nearly 2 percent of Canada’s inha­bitants.

            The largest religious community in Canada is Roman Ca­tholic. Nearly half of Canadians who are Roman Catholic live in Quebec. Of the Protestant denominations in Canada the lar­gest is the United Church of Canada, followed by the Anglican Church of Canada. Other important Protestant groups are the Baptist, Presbyterian and Lutheran. Nearly 2 percent of the population are Orthodox. Muslim and Jewish adherents each number about 1 percent. A substantial number of Buddhists, Hindus and Sikhs have been brought to the country in recent years by immigration. Nearly 13 percent of Canadians claim no religion.

 

 

 

                  QUESTIONS:

 

1.      Where is Canada situated?

2.      When did Canada become an independent dominion?

3.      What size does Canada have?

4.      What is the highest Canadian point?

5.      How many people live in Canada?

6.      How many people speak English?

7.      How many people speak French?

8.      How many provinces are there in Canada?

9.      Are there indigenous people in Canada?

10.   What is the largest religious community in Canada?

 

 

VOCABULARY:

 

to wash — омывать

the Arctic Ocean — Северный Ледовитый океан

border — граница

vast — обширный, громадный; безбрежный

natural resource — природные ресурсы

self-governing dominion — доминион под самоуправле­нием

crown — корона

to surpass — превосходить, превышать

notably — весьма, заметно, очень, сильно

neighbour — сосед

slightly — мало, незначительно, слегка

commerce — коммерция, торговля

to vary — изменять(ся), менять(ся); отличаться

temperate — умеренный (о климате и т. п.)

subarctic — субарктический

sparsely — редко, негусто

to inhabit — населять, заселять

to be derived from — происходить от

Iroquoian — ирокезский

to drain — отводить воду, осуществлять дренаж

to empty into — зд. Впадать

the Gulf of Saint Lawrence — залив Святого Лаврентия

the Ottawa — река Оттава

the Saguenay — река Сагенай

affluent — приток (реки)

confederation — конфедерация

to prevail — преобладать, господствовать

make up — состав, строение

to diversify — разнообразить; изменять

to be composed of — состоять из

origin — происхождение

majority — большинство

to reside — пребывать, находиться

to maintain — поддерживать

bilingual — двуязычный

to increase — возрастать, увеличивать(ся); расти

ancestry — предки, прародители

indigenous — аборигенный, местный, туземный

Roman Catholic — римско-католический; католик

the United Church of Canada — Объединенная церковь Канады

the Anglican Church of Canada — Англиканская церковь Канады

the Baptist — баптисты

Presbyterian — пресвитерианин (представитель пресви­терианства — религиозного течения, являющегося разно­видностью кальвинизма в англоязычных странах)

Lutheran — лютеране

Orthodox — религ. православный

Muslim — мусульманин

Jewish — иудей

adherent — приверженец, сторонник

Buddhist — буддист

Hindus — индус

Sikh — сикх (последователи сикхизма, секты в индуизме)

to claim — заявлять, утверждать

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