THE COMMONWEALTH OF AUSTRALIA

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            The Commonwealth of Australia is a self-governing federal country, divided into six states: New South Wales, Victoria, Queensland, South Australia, Western Australia, Tasmania and two internal territories. It is situated in the southwestern part of the Pacific Ocean. The total area of the country contains 7 000 000 square kilometers. Australia is the smallest conti­nent, it is often called subcontinent.

            The Dutch were the first Europeans to visit Australia. In 1770, the English captain James Cook discovered the East Coast of Australia.

             Today about 20 million people live in Australia. The capi­tal of the country is Canberra, this city became capital in 1927. Federal government works in Canberra. There are no indus­trial plants in the city. The population of Canberra is about 300 000 people. There we can find the buildings of Australian academy of Science, the Australian National University and others. The biggest industrial cities of Australia are Sydney and Melbourne.

             Australian climate is dry and warm, even hot. Australia is situated in the Southern Hemisphere and that is why it has summer when we have winter and vice versa. January is the hottest month in Australia. Australia is separated from other countries. The animals in Australia have developed different­ly. They are called marsupial. They are interesting. You can see the dingo, a wild dog which kills other animals at night, the kangaroo and many parrots there. There are many lakes in the country, although this country is called the country of deserts. There are many deserts in the central and western part of the continent. Australia is an industrial country. They ex­tract there coal, nickel, zinc and gold. Australia is one of the most important producers of metals and minerals. It exports woolen goods, meat, fruit and sugar. Melbourne, Sydney and Brisbane are the biggest cities and ports of the country.

           

 

 

               QUESTIONS:

 

1.      How many states are there in the Commonwealth of Aus­tralia?

2.      Where is Australia located?

3.      What is the total area of the country?

4.      How is Australia often called?

5.      Who were the first Europeans to visit Australia?

6.      How many people live in Australia today?

7.      What is the capital of the state?

8.      What is the population of Canberra?

9.      What are the biggest cities of Australia?

10.   What climate does Australia have?

11.   What is the hottest month in Australia?

12.   How are the animals of Australia called?

 

 

VOCABULARY:

 

commonwealth — содружество, федерация

self-governing — самоуправляемая

the Dutch — датчане

to discover — открывать, делать открытие

industrial plants — промышленные предприятия

the Southern Hemisphere — Южное Полушарие

vice versa — лат. нареч.наоборот; обратно, противопо­ложно

to separate — отделять, разделять; разъединять

to develop — развивать

marsupial — сумчатое животное; сумчатый

dingo — зоол. Динго

kangaroo — кенгуру

parrot — попугай

desert — пустыня

to extract — добывать, извлекать

coal — уголь

nickel — никель

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