EUROPEAN WOMEN YESTERDAY AND TODAY

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         In the 17th century rich women normally were taught at home by a tutor, they were taught subjects like Latin, French, Needlework and they were also taught how to look pretty and to play the piano and other instruments.

        When they became older their parents decided who they were going to marry and the family of the woman should pay a dowry to the parents of the husband. A rich woman wouldn’t normally get a job, they could just stay at home and look after the family and tell the servants what to do.

         Poor women did not go to school or did not have an educa­tion; they just looked after their home, children and prepared meals or worked in fields. They didn’t get paid much and had to work hard.

         In the 19th century rich women were educated at home and learned pretty much the same as in the 17th century. They were learned to play the piano, speak French, entertain guests and look attractive. After 1870 it was made compulsory for all women to have an education. Girls didn’t learn the same sub­jects as boys. Girls learnt subjects like laundry, cookery, need­lework and housewifery skills.

        Rich women did not work, but ran their home with the help of their servants, after 1870 some women became teachers and others could work as secretaries or clerks. So, women could work but there was a condition. At that time any woman had to retire when she got married.

         Servants of rich women did all her domestic tasks at home. So all they needed to do at home was to look good and attrac­tive and boss servants around.

         Poor women had to work as well as bringing up her chil­dren, they had to work in coal mines and factories for long hours earning little money. Until 1870 young children from poor families had to work too.

          In the 20th century, when the 1st World War started, women could leave their underpaid jobs and could get jobs at a factory because all men had gone off to fight for the war, so women worked in factories, making armours for the war.

         When the war was over, women had to go back to their old jobs and they didn’t earn as much money as they were used to earn. Later a typewriter was invented and jobs as secretaries became available for women. Some women became teachers. Women were now aloud to vote and the first female presidents came. Some women were involved in politics.

         Women started to wear different clothes, they do not wear corsets any more, they wear shorter dresses, even trousers.

         To my thinking, the role of women has changed quite a lot. I think all changes that happened in the 20th century were good, because women became to be treated more equally and even more due to the processes of emancipation.

 

 

 

QUESTIONS:

 

1.  Where were rich women taught in the 17th century?

2.  What subjects did they learn the 17th century?

3.  Did poor women go to school that time?

4.  What did rich women learn in the 19th century?

5.  When did an education become compulsory for all wo­men?

6.  What did the invention of typewriter change?

7.  Who did all domestic tasks at rich women’s home?

8.  Where did poor women have to work?

9.  Why could women get jobs at a factory when the 1st World War started?

10. What changes happened in women’s life in the 20th century?

11. How has the role of women changed in the 20th centu­ry?

 

 

VOCABULARY:

 

tutor — домашний учитель, репетитор

needlework — рукоделие

dowry — приданое

education — образование

to look after — присматривать

to educate — образовывать

to entertain — развлекать

attractive — привлекательный

compulsory — обязательный

subject — предмет

laundry — прачечное дело

cookery — кулинария

housewifery skills — навыки домашнего хозяйства

to run (past ran, p.p. run) the home — управлять домаш­ним хозяйством

typewriter — печатная машинка

to invent — изобретать

clerk — клерк, секретарь

to retire — уходить в отставку, увольняться

domestic — домашний

to bring (past brought, p.p. brought) up — воспитывать, растить

coal mine — угольная шахта

underpaid job — малооплачиваемая работа

armours — вооружение

available — пригодный; достижимый

to vote — голосовать

female — женский

widely — широко

to represent — представлять

corset — корсет

to treat — обращаться, обходиться

to be due to — благодаря чему-либо, из-за чего-либо

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