GEORGE WASHINGTON (2)

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            George Washington is the first President of the USA.

         He was born in Westmoreland County, on a farm, later known as Wakefield, on February 11, 1732, according to the Old Style or February 22, 1732 (the New Style). His first Ame­rican ancestor, John Washington, came to Virginia from Eng­land in 1657. These immigrant’s descendants remained in the colony and gained a respected place in society. Farming, land buying, trading and the iron industry were means by which the family rose in the world. George’s father, Augustine, had four children by his first wife and six by his second wife, Mary Ball, George’s mother.

        Shortly after his twenty-second birthday, Washington served in the army of King George Шof England and was put in command of soldiers. The French started settling on Bri­tish territory and turning local Indians against the British co­lonists. Later, in the war against the French and Indians, Washington commanded large troops of soldiers and showed courage that inspired his soldiers.

        After a colonial rebellion against taxes, passed in Boston in 1773, colonies began insist on their freedom and it helped to spark the American Revolution. Washington led and encou­raged his inexperienced armies against well-armed and trained British forces. The Revolution lasted for eight years until the colonies won their independence.

        After the war, Washington took a leading part in the ma­king of the Constitution and the campaign for its ratification. Its success was assured by 1797, at the end of the second term of his presidency. In 1799, the country included nearly all its present-day territory between the Atlantic coast and the Mis­sissippi River.

         By the end of 1795, Washington’s creative work had been done.

         When Washington retired from public life in 1797, his homeland was vastly different from what it had been when he entered public service in 1749. To each of the principal chan­ges he had made an outstanding contribution. Largely because of his leadership, the Thirteen Colonies had become the Uni­ted States, a sovereign, independent nation, nation that in the end of 20th and beginning of 21st century would become the most powerful state in the world.

 

 

 

QUESTIONS:

  1. Where was George Washington born?
  2. Where did Washington’s ancestor come from?
  3. What kind of soldier was Washington?
  4. Why did the future president lead inexperienced armies against trained British forces?
  5. What was Washington’s main merit after the war?

 

 

VOCABULARY:

county — aмep. округ

according to — согласно, в соответствии с

ancestor — предок

descendant — потомок

to remain — оставаться

to gain — достигать, добиваться

to serve — служить

troops — войска

to inspire — вдохновлять

rebellion — восстание, мятеж

taxes — налоги

to insist — настаивать

to spark — вспыхивать

to encourage — ободрять, поддерживать

inexperienced — неопытный

to assure — гарантировать

creative — творческий

homeland — родина

outstanding — выдающийся

contribution — вклад

sovereign — суверенный, независимый

 

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