GLOBAL WARMING

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         Global warming is sometimes referred to as the greenhouse effect. The greenhouse effect is the absorption of energy radi­ated from the Earth’s surface by carbon dioxide and other gases in the atmosphere, causing the atmosphere to become warmer. Each time we burn gasoline, oil, coal, or even natural gas, more carbon dioxide is added to the atmosphere. The greenhouse effect is what is causing the temperature on the Earth to rise, and creating many problems that will begin to take place in the coming decades.

         Today, however, major changes are taking place. People are conducting an unplanned global experiment by changing the face of the entire planet. We are destroying the ozone layer, which allows life to exist on the Earth’s surface. All of these activities are unfavourably changing the composition of the biosphere and the Earth’s heat balance. If we do not slow down our use of fossil fuels and stop destroying the forests, the world could become hotter than it has been in the past million years. Average global temperatures have risen 1 degree over the last century. If carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases conti­nue to spill into the atmosphere, global temperatures could rise five to 10 degrees by the middle of the next century. Some areas, particularly in the Northern Hemisphere, will dry out and a greater occurrence of forest fires will take place. At the present rate of destruction, most of the rain forests will be gone by the middle of the century. This will allow man-made deserts to invade on once lush areas. Evaporation rates will also increase and water circulation patterns will change. De­creased rainfall in some areas will result in increased rainfall in others. In some regions, river flow will be reduced or stopped all together completely. Other areas will experience sudden downpours that create massive floods.

         If the present arctic ice melting continues, the sea could rise as much as 2 meters by the middle of the next century.

         Large areas of coastal land would disappear. Plants and other wildlife habitats might not have enough time to adjust to the rapidly changing climate. The warming will rearrange entire biological communities and cause many species to be­come died out.

       The greenhouse effect and global warming both correspond with each other. The green house effect is recalled as incoming solar radiation that passes through the Earth’s atmosphere but prevents much of the outgoing infrared radiation from esca­ping into outer space. It causes the overheat of the air and as a result, we have the global warming effect. As you see, green­house effect and global warming correspond with each other, because without one, the other doesn’t exist.

 

 

 

QUESTIONS:

 

1. What is global warming?

2. What is greenhouse effect?

3. What activities are unfavourable and change the com­position of the biosphere and the Earth’s heat balance?

4. What can prevent the developing of greenhouse effect?

5. Why are water circulation patterns changing?

6. What might cause disappearing of large areas of coastal land?

7. Does the warming affect biological communities?

8. Is there a correspondence between greenhouse effect and global warming?

 

 

VOCABULARY:

 

global warming — глобальное потепление

to refer — иметь отношение, относиться; касаться

greenhouse effect — парниковый эффект

absorption — поглощение, абсорбция

surface — поверхность

carbon dioxide — углекислота, углекислый газ

to burn (past burnt, p.p. burnt) — сжигать

gasoline — бензин

oil — нефть

coal — уголь

ozone layer — озоновый слой

to slow down — замедлить

fossil fuel — ископаемое топливо

average — нормальный, обыкновенный, обычный, средний

to spill into — проливать(ся), разливать(ся)

the Northern Hemisphere — Северное полушарие

destruction — разрушение, уничтожение

evaporation rate — скорость / уровень испарения

to increase — возрастать, увеличивать(ся); расти

water circulation pattern — сложившийся круговорот воды в природе

rainfall — количество дождей, дождевые осадки

river flow — уровень воды в реках

downpour — ливень

massive flood — крупное наводнение

to melt — таять

coastal land — прибрежные земли

to adjust — приспосабливаться, привыкать

entire — весь, целый

biological communities — биологические сообщества

to die out — вымереть, исчезнуть

outer space — внешний / открытый космос

overheat — перегрев

to correspond — согласовываться, соотноситься

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