THE GREAT AMERICAN GAME

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        In the early days of the history of baseball there were se­veral variations of the game known as Rounders, but the game had no set of «official» rules. People played the game by their own set of rules which were decided by local customs or deci­sions.

       This led to variations in the number of players on a side, how many bases were used; the formation and distance of the bases and other rules would vary from place to place. This game eventually led to a game known as Town Ball and then to the game we know as baseball.

        The game was more likely invented by a man named Ale­xander Cartwright.

        In 1845, he was looking for some recreation with friends. They began to play a version of Rounders, but Cartwright ad­ded some new rules to the game.

        25 year old Cartwright began to give the game some order. He made the decision that the bases should be set at 90 feet apart.

       He decided that there should be 9 players in each team and devised the positioning that is still used today. He decided that each team would get three outs and then switch sides.

       Baseball history shows that the game that Cartwright came up with was referred to as the New York game or the Knicker­bocker’s game.

        The first organized baseball game between two rival clubs took place on June 19, 1846 in New Jersey. The game took place between the Knickerbocker club from New York City that was under the direction of Alexander Cartwright and the New York Nine.

       The popularity of the game continued to rise in New York City where clubs began to sprout up at a very rapid rate. These social clubs included the Gotham Club of New York in 1850, the Eagle Club in 1854 and the Empire Club in 1854.

        In 1869, baseball history shows that the first professional team was fielded in Cincinnati, Ohio. The Red Stockings were the first team that was all salaried. Teams had been made up of only amateurs, but this team travelled the country playing other teams.

       Some changes had taken place in the game. The players also wore stylized uniforms and most of them now wore gloves.

      A major step came in 1903 when the American League joined the National League. These leagues were considered to be «separate, but equal» leagues.

      The history of baseball from 1903 till 1920 is commonly referred to as the «Dead Ball Era». In the period from 1935 till 1945, baseball went through a very difficult period.

       The face of baseball has changed significantly from the early part of the twentieth century. The face of the history of baseball literally changed at the end of 1945. This was a sig­nificant achievement for equality in baseball when black play­ers began to play in baseball in the League.

       The period from 1946 till 2003 is marked by an increasing awareness that the game of baseball is also a business.

 

 

 

QUESTIONS:

  1. What was the first name of the game that now we know as baseball?
  2. Who was the inventor of the game?
  3. When did the first organized baseball game between two rival clubs take place?
  4. When did the first professional team play?
  5. Where was the first game played with the participation of the professional team?
  6. When did the American League join the National League?
  7. What period from the history of baseball is known as the «Dead Ball Era»?
  8. When did a significant achievement for equality in base­ball take place?

 

 

VOCABULARY:

Rounders — английская лапта

set — комплект, набор; свод

own — свой, собственный; родной

to decide — решать(ся), принимать решение, делать выбор

base — база (в игре)

formation — образование, создание; формирование

rule — закон ; правило, норма

to vary — изменять(ся), менять(ся); разнообразить; варь­ировать

eventually — в конечном счете, в итоге, в конце концов; со временем

to lead (led) — возглавлять; вести, сопровождать, быть проводником

to invent — изобретать, создавать, придумывать

recreation — отдых, развлечение; хобби, приятное вре­мя препровождение

to devise — разрабатывать, продумывать (планы, идеи); выдумывать, изобретать

out — аут

to switch sides — поменяться сторонами

to come up — зд.придумать

to refer — иметь отношение, относиться; касаться

rival — соперник; противник

to rise — увеличиваться, расти

to sprout up — расти, разрастаться

to field — выпускать на поле; выйти в поле

Cincinnati — г. Цинциннати

amateur — любитель, непрофессионал; спортсмен-любитель

stylized — стилизованный

gloves — перчатки

equal — равноправный, равный

literally — буквально, дословно; точно; без преувеличе­ний; в соответствии с фактами

significant — значительный, важный, существенный; знаменательный

achievement — достижение, успех (в чем-л.)

to increase — возрастать, увеличивать(ся); расти; уси­ливаться

awareness — осознание

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