JOHANN SEBASTIAN BACH

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            Johann Sebastian Bach was born in 1685. He was a Ger­man organist and composer of the baroque era, one of the grea­test and most productive geniuses in the history of Western music.

            In 1700, Bach began to earn his own living as a chorister at the Church of Saint Michael in Luneburg at around age five. In 1703, he became a violinist in the chamber orchestra of Prince Johann Ernst of Weimar, but later that year he moved to Arnstadt, where he became church organist. In October 1705, Bach secured a one-month leave of absence in order to study with the renowned Danish-born German organist and composer Dietrich Buxtehude, who was then in Lubeck and whose organ music greatly influenced Bach’s.

           In 1707 Johann Sebastian Bach married his second cousin, Maria Barbara Bach, and went to Mulhausen as organist in the Church of Saint Blasius. He went back to Weimar to spend the next year as organist and violinist at the court of Duke Wil­helm Ernst and remained there for the next nine years, beco­ming concertmaster of the court orchestra in 1714.

           Bach moved to Leipzig in 1723 and spent the rest of his life there. Bach found his job as musical director and choirmaster of Saint Thomas's church and church school in Leipzig. He had constant disagreements with the town council, and neither the council nor the populace appreciated his musical genius. Bach’s sight began to fail in the last year of his life. He died on July 28, 1750, after undergoing an unsuccessful eye operation.

         Posthumously, Bach was remembered as a virtuous organ­ist rather than a composer of great skill and importance, as he was one of the most highly skilled organists who ever lived. A revival of interest in Bach’s works came with the admiration of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart and Ludwig van Beethoven.

         Bach was largely self-taught in musical composition. Bach’s music is significant because of the high level of intel­lect in his compositions. Bach was greatly skilled at writing music, such a melody to represent the sea.

         Bach was one of the most prolific composers. His music is a fine mixture of technical dexterity and beautiful melodies. This is why his music is so popular today and why the Classical composers had great interest in him.

        He was creatively active until the very end, even after nu­merous heart problems.

       Largely self-taught, Bach had a huge output. He wrote over 215 musical compositions.

 

 

 

QUESTIONS:

1. When was Johann Sebastian Bach born?

2. What was Johann Sebastian Bach?

3. When did Johann Sebastian Bach begin to earn his own living as a chorister?

4. When did Bach become a violinist in the chamber orches­tra of Prince Johann Ernst?

5. Where did Bach spend the rest of his life?

6. Why is Bach’s music so significant?

7. What happened in the last year of his life?

8. When did Johann Sebastian Bach die?

9. Why did Johann Sebastian Bach die?

 

 

 

VOCABULARY:

organist — органист

composer — композитор

baroque era — эра барокко

genius — гений, гениальный человек; талант

to earn — зарабатывать

chorister — хорист, хористка (в церковном хоре)

violinist — скрипач

chamber orchestra — камерный оркестр

to move — переехать

to secure — зд. добиваться; достигать (цели); получать

absence — отсутствие; отлучка

renown — известность, популярность, слава

influence — влияние, действие, воздействие

court — двор

concertmaster — концертмейстер

court orchestra — придворный оркестр

choirmaster — хормейстер

populace — простойнарод; массы, толпа; чернь

to fail — неудаваться, провалиться

to undergo (past underwent, p.p. undergone) — подвергаться, претерпевать

posthumously — посмертно, после смерти автора

virtuoso — виртуозный, виртуоз

skilled — искусный, квалифицированный, умелый, опытный

revival — возобновление, восстановление

admiration — восторг, изумление, восхищение

prolific — плодовитый

technical dexterity — зд. техническое совершенство

self-taught — самоучка

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