NAPOLEON BONAPARTE

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          Napoleon Bonaparte was born on August 15, 1769 in Cor­sica Island. He was the greatest hero of France. His family had moved there from Italy in the 16th century. His original name was Napoleone and his original nationality was Corsican-Italian.

          His father was a lawyer, and was anti-French. One reason Napoleon may have been such a great leader and revolutionary, that he was raised in a family of radicals. When Napoleon was nine, his father sent him to Brienne, a French military go­vernment school in Paris. It was there that he received his mi­litary training. He studied to be an artilleryman and an offi­cer. He finished his training and joined the French army when he was just 16.

           Napoleon was assigned to work in Paris in 1792. After the French monarchy was overthrown in August 1792, he was pro­moted to captain. In 1793, he was chosen to direct the artil­lery against the siege in Toulon. Very soon after Toulon fell and Napoleon was promoted to brigadier general. He was made commander of the French army in Italy and defeated many Austrian Generals. Soon after this Austria and France made peace and Napoleon was released from his command, he was suspected of treason. In 1795, he broke up a revolt and saved the French government. He had earned back respect and he was once again given command of the French Army in Italy. He came up with a plan that worked very well. «He would cut the enemy’s army in to two parts, then attack one side of them before the other side could help them».

           After this, Napoleon was almost impossible to stop. He made an unsuccessful attempt to invade Egypt and in 1799 he returned to France to find the Directory (the French Govern­ment) in a mess. He overthrew the Directory, and created a new government, in which there were three consuls and he was the most important one. At this time, everyone in France loved and admired Napoleon; his power increased. In 1802 France signed a peace treaty with England and Germany.

           He re-established the University of France, reformed the education system, and founded the Bank of France. He also made the Napoleonic Code: the first clear, compact statement of the French law. The Napoleonic Code has served as a base for legal systems around the world until this day.

          Soon he changed the government again and declared him­self the Emperor of France. He married Marie Louise, the daughter of the Emperor of Austria. Soon his son was born. He now was the ruler of a Great Empire, and he had 42 million people under his control.

           Then he tried to invade Russia, after that his empire be­gan to crumble. And on April 6, 1814, he was forced from the throne and was exiled to the island of Elba. About a year later, he gathered about 1,000 soldiers and went to Paris and re­gained power. He ruled for a short time and then he surren­dered to the English. He was exiled to the island of St. Helena in the south Atlantic, where he stayed until he died on May 5, 1821. He is supposed to die of cancer, but there are rumours that he was poisoned.

 

 

 

QUESTIONS:

1. When was Napoleon Bonaparte born?

2. What were his original name and nationality?

3. Who-sent Napoleon Bonaparte to study to a military school?

4. When was Napoleon promoted to captain?

5. When was Napoleon promoted to brigadier general?

6. What happened in 1795?

7. Did Napoleon Bonaparte try to invade Egypt?

8. When did he overthrow the Directory?

9. Who was his wife?

10. Did they have any children?

11. When did the French Empire begin to crumble?

12. When was he forced from the throne?

13. Where was Napoleon Bonaparte exiled?

14. Where did Napoleon Bonaparte die?

 

 

 

VOCABULARY:

lawyer — юрист, адвокат

to raise — воспитывать (детей); повышать (в звании, должности)

to assign — назначать, определять, устанавливать

to overthrow (past overthrew, p.p. overthrown) — свер­гать; побеждать; низвергать, уничтожать

to promote — выдвигать, продвигать; повышать в чине/ звании

siege — осада

to defeat — воен  .   одержать победу над кем-л., наносить поражение; завоевывать

to release — увольнять (с работы), воен. демобилизовать

to suspect of treason — подозревать в измене

to brake (past broke, p.p. broken) up a revolt — начать восстание, мятеж

to earn back — получить обратно

attempt — попытка; проба

to invade — вторгаться, захватывать, оккупировать

in a mess — в беспорядке; путаница,

the Directory — ист. Директория

consul — консул

to admire — восторгаться, восхищаться

to increase — возрастать, увеличивать(ся); расти

to sign a peace treaty — подписать мирное соглашение

statement — заявление, утверждение

law — закон

to serve — служить

legal system — правовая / судебная система

to declare — заявлять, объявлять; провозглашать, объявлять публично

to crumble — терпеть крах, разрушаться, гибнуть

to force from the throne — заставить отречься от трона

to exile — высылать, изгонять, ссылать;

to rule — править, управлять

to surrender — сдавать(ся); капитулировать

rumour — молва, слух

to poison — отравить

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