NEW ZEALAND (2)

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         The British colony of New Zealand became an independent dominion in 1907. It supported the UK militarily in both World Wars.

         New Zealandis a group of islands in the South Pacific Ocean, southeast of Australia. The total territory of New Zealand is 268,680 square kilometers. Its climate is temperatewith sharp regional contrasts. The landscape of the country is mountainous with some large coastal plains. The highest point is Mount Cook 3,764 meters. Natural resources are: natural gas, iron ore, sand, coal, timber, gold, limestone.

The population of New Zealand is about 3,910,000. About 80% of the population live in cities.

English, Maori are both official state languages of the coun­try.

             Talking about natural hazards, I should notice that earth­quakes are common, though usually not severe and there is a volcanic activity in New Zealand.

             Independence Day is celebrated on September, 26.

            Government type is parliamentary democracy. Adminis­trative division is the following: 93 counties, 9 districts, and 3 town districts.

Legal system is based on the English law, with special land legislation and land courts for Maoris.

             Since 6 February 1952 the chief of the state is Queen Eli­zabeth П, represented by Governor General Dame Silvia Cart­wright since 4 April 2001.

          Since 10 December 1999, the Head of the government is Prime Minister Helen Clark and Deputy Prime Minister James Anderton.

              Since 1984 the government has accomplished major eco­nomic restructuring, transforming New Zealand from an agrarian economy to a more industrialized, free market eco­nomy that can compete globally. New Zealand is heavily de­pendent on trade — particularly in agricultural products. The main industries are mining, food processing, wood and paper products, textiles, machinery, transportation equipment.

                  New Zealand’s currency is New Zealand dollar.

New Zealandis the name of the country that has volcanoes, mountains, tropical forests and rivers of ice.

            New Zealandis an insular country. It is made up of two big islands: the North and South Islands and many small islands around.

            The aborigines of New Zealand are the Maoris. They call New Zealand the Land of the Long White Cloud. The Maoris are one of the Polynesian nations, who made their great journey to New Zealand from Indonesia and the South Pacific in the middle of the 14th century. They sailed in double canoes, open to all Wea­thers. They knew the winds, the ocean flows and the star navi­gation that is why they reached this land, later called New Zealand and we can call them the Vikings of the Sunrise.

           Most population of New Zealand lives on the North Island. Here you can also find big volcanoes like Egmont and Tonga- riro, geysers and lakes of bubbling mud.

           The biggest cities of New Zealand are Auckland, Chris­tchurch and Wellington. Wellington is the present capital of New Zealand since 1865, and one of its busiest ports, located at the southern end of North Island, lying among hills on the wes­tern side of a natural harbour. It is the third largest city of New Zealand. Auckland or former capital of New Zealand is the lar­gest city of the state. Christchurch is the second largest city.

              South Island is larger than North Island. There are the highest mountains in this part of the country. There you can find the snow-capped Southern Alps, rising 3 764 meters to the tip of Mount Cook (named after Captain Cook, who visited the islands before sailing westwards and discovering the eas­tern coast of Australia).

             South Island is very beautiful with its mountains, called Alps, lakes, glaciers and fiords. Here you can see the Sunder­land Falls, where water drops from the height of six hundred meters, making these falls one of the highest waterfalls in the world.

The climate is mild at all seasons. There is no much diffe­rence of temperature between winter and summer. Notwith­standing New Zealand is close to Australia, New Zealand does not have such terrible heat of Australian summers, because the ocean tempers its climate.

             North Island is where you can find the Maoris, fine people who had lived on these islands hundreds of years before the white man came. Most of them live near Auckland.

           The first colonist or settler appeared on the present terri­tory of Wellington in 1840. They called their settlement Bri­tannia.

           By the year 1842, there were 3 700 colonists in the settle­ment of Britannia and later it was renamed into Wellington.

 

 

 

QUESTIONS:

 

1. When did the British colony of New Zealand become an independent dominion?

2. What does New Zealand consist of?

3. What is the total territory of the country?

4. What is the climate like in New Zealand?

5. What is the predominate landscape of the country?

6. What is the population of New Zealand?

7. When do people celebrate Independence Day in New Zealand?

8. What is the government type of the country?

9. What is the legal system based on?

10. Who is considered to be the chief of the state since 6 February 1952?

11. How did economic restructuring influence New Zealand’s economy?

12. What is New Zealand heavily dependent on?

13. What are the main industries of the state?

14. What is New Zealand’s currency?

15. Is New Zealand a peninsular country?

16. Who are considered to be native people of New Zealand?

17. What is another name for New Zealand used by the Maori?

18. When did the Maoris appear on the islands?

19 .What are the biggest cities of New Zealand?

20. What is the capital of the country?

21. What is the highest mountain of the country?

22. Who discovered New Zealand?

23. Where can you see high waterfalls, mountains, called Alps, lakes, glaciers and fiords?

24. What is the climate of New Zealand?

25. Is the climate of New Zealand as hot as that of Austra­lia?

 

 

VOCABULARY:

 

to support — поддерживать

temperate — умеренный

landscape — ландшафт, пейзаж

coastal plain — прибрежная равнина

ironore — железная руда

timber — древесина

limestone — известняк

hazard — стихийное бедствие

earthquake — землетрясение

severe — суровый, сильный

legislation — Законодательство

chief of state — глава государства

to accomplish — выполнять

to transform — превращать, преобразовывать

to be dependent on — зависеть

mining — добыча полезных ископаемых

food processing — пищевая промышленность

currency — валюта

volcano — вулкан

to make (past made, p.p. made) up — составлять

aborigine — туземец, абориген, представитель коренно­го населения

Polynesian — полинезийский

Indonesia — Индонезия

to sail — плавать, совершать плавание

double canoe — двойное каноэ

to reach — достичь

the Vikings of the Sunrise — викинг и страны Восходя­щего Солнца

bubbling mud — булькающая грязь

fiord — фьорд

drop — капля

mild — умеренный (о погоде, климате и т. п.)

notwithstanding — тем не менее, однако, все же

settler — поселенец

settlement — поселение, селение, небольшой городишко

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