THE RENAISSANCE IN ENGLAND

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              The «dark» Middle Ages were followed by a time known in art and literature as the Renaissance. The word «renaissance» means «rebirth» in French and was used to denote a phase in the cultural development of Europe between the 14th and 17th centuries. Firstly, Renaissante appeared in Italy.

              As to England, the wave of progress reached the shores of England only in the 16th century. The ideas of the Renaissance came to England together with the ideas of the Reformation (the establishment of the national Church) and were called the «New Learning». Every year numbers of new books were brought out and these books were sold openly, but only few people could read and enjoy them.

              The universities were lacking in teachers to spread the ideas of modern thought. So, many English scholars began to go to Italy, where they learned to understand the ancient classics, and when they came home they adapted their classical lear­ning to the needs of the country. Grammar schools (primary schools) increased in number. The new point of view passed from the schools to the home and to the market place.

               Many of the learned men in Italy came from the great city of Constantinople. It was besieged and taken by Turks in 1453. All the great libraries and schools in Constantinople had been broken up and destroyed. The Latin and Greek scholars were driven out of the city. They took some books they were able to carry away with them. Being learned men, many of them found a welcome in the cities and towns in which they stopped. They began to teach the people how to read the Latin and Greek books which they had brought with them and also taught them to read the Latin and Greek books which were kept in many towns of Europe, but which few people at that time were able to read.

                Foreign scholars and artists began to teach in England du­ring the reign of Henry VIII. In the beginning it was the imi­tation period. Painting was represented by German artist Hol­bein; music by Italians and French men. The case was different with literature. English poets and dramatists popularized much of the new learning. The freedom of thought of English humanists revealed itself in antifeudal ideas, showing the life of their own people as it really was.

    

 

 

QUESTIONS:

 

1.  What does the word «renaissance» mean?

2.  Where did the Renaissance appear?

3.  When did the Renaissance appear in England?

4.  How was the establishment of the national Church in England called?

5.  Why did many English scholars go to Italy at that time?

6.  Why were Latin and Greek scholars driven out of Con­stantinople in 1453?

7.  When did foreign scholars and artists begin to teach in England?

    

 

 

VOCABULARY:

 

Middle Ages — Средние века

to follow — следовать, идти за

the Renaissance — Ренессанс, эпоха Возрождения

rebirth — возрождение

to denote — отмечать (знаком, меткой, символом), обо­значать; различать, отличать

development — развитие

to appear — показываться; появляться

to reach — достигать

shore — берег (моря, озера, океана, но не реки); побе­режье

the Reformation — ист. Реформация (широкое обще­ственно-политическое и религиозное движение в Западной и Центральной Европе XVI в., носившее в своей основе ан­тифеодальный характер и принявшее форму борьбы против католической церкви)

establishment — основание, учреждение

to bring (past brought, p.p. brought) out — издавать

to lack — нехватать, недоставать; испытывать недостаток

to spread (past spread, p.p. spread) — разносить(ся), рас­пространяться)

to adapt — приспосабливать, адаптировать

to besiege — осаждать

to break (past broke, p.p. broken) up — зд. уничтожить

to drive (past drove, p.p. driven) out — выгнать, изгнать.

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