THE ROMAN AGE

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           Talking about Great Britain, we do not have to forget its history. Now I would like to tell you a few words about “prehistoric history”. Hundreds of years passed after Brutus conquered Albion and changed its name to Britain. During time many kings and queens reigned over the island. There were many good and wise rulers among these ancient British kings. But one day appeared a new invader. It was roman legions. The Roman Emperor Julius Caesar sent two expeditions in 55 and 54 BC to conquer the Island. Caesar’s summer expeditions were failure. Almost a century later in 43 AD, Emperor Claudius sent his legions to occupy Britain. The occupation was to last more than three centuries. The British were not conquered easily. There was a resistance in Wales and the Romans destroyed the Druids, a class of Celtic priest (or witchdoctors). Druids were destroyed as their rituals allegedly involved human sacrifice. Also, there was a revolt in East Anglia, where Queen Boudicca and her daughters in their chariots were fighting against Roman soldiers and were defeated. The Roman occupation was spread mainly over England, while Wales, Scotland and Ireland remained unconquered areas preserving Celtic culture and traditions. The Romans were in Great Britain for over 350 years, they were both an occupying army and the rulers. They imposed Pax Romana, - Roman peace – which stopped tribal wars, and protected Britain from the attacks of outsiders – Picts in the North, Saxons from overseas. London is a Celtic name, but many towns that Romans built along their roads – Lancaster, Winchester, etc. have the Latin component “castra” - a camp, a fortified town.

            London was the centre of Roman Rule in Britain, it was walled, the Thames was bridged; and straight paved roads connected London with garrison towns.

            Under the Emperor Hadrian in 120 AD a great wall was built across Britain between the Tyne and the Solway to protect the Romans against the attacks of Scots and Picts.

            Hadrian’s Wall was a vast engineering project and is a monument of the Roman times.

         The Romans also brought Christianity to Britain and the British Church became a strong institution.

            The language absorbed many Latin words at that time. By the fifth century the Roman Empire began to disintegrate and the Roman legions in Britain had to return back to Rome to defend it from the attacks of the new waves of barbaric invaders. Britain was left to defend and rule itself.

 

 

 

QUESTIONS:

 

1.  When did Albion change its name to Britain?

2.  When did the Roman Emperor Julius Caesar send two expeditions to conquer the British Isles?

3.  When did Emperor Claudius send his legions to occupy Britain?

4.  Did the Roman legions managed to occupy Britain?

5.  How long did the occupation of the island last?

6.   Who were Celtic priests at that time?

7.   How long were the Romans in Great Britain?

8.  What settlement was the centre of Roman Rule in Britain?

9.  When was a great wall across Britain between the Tyne and Solway to protect the Romans against the attacks of Scots and Picts built?

10. Who brought Christianity to Britain?

11. When did the Roman legions leave Britain?

 

 

 

VOCABULARY:

 

to forget (past forgot, p.p. forgotten) – забыть, забывать

to conquer – завоевывать, покорять; порабощать; подчинять

Albion – Альбион

to reignover – править чем-л.

wise – мудрый; умудренный

ruler –  правитель

ancient – древний; старинный, старый; античный

invader – захватчик, оккупант

failure – неудача, промах

to occupy – захватывать, завоевывать, завладевать; оккупировать

to last – продолжаться, длиться

the Druids – друиды

Celtic – кельтский

priest – жрец, священник

witchdoctor – знахарь, колдун

allegedly –будто бы, якобы; по утверждению, как утверждают

to involve – вовлекать

sacrifice -  жертва; жертвоприношение

revolt – бунт, возмущение, восстание, мятеж

chariot – ист. Колесница

to spread (past spread, p.p. spread) – распространять(ся),  простираться

to preserve – предохранять, хранить, сохранять

to impose – навязать

Pax Romana – римский мир

tribal – племенной, родовой

fortified – укрепленный

straight – прямой

to pave – замащивать, мостить

garrison – гарнизон

Picts – пикты

vast – обширный, громадный; безбрежный

to disintegrate – распадаться

barbaric – варварский; первобытный

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