SCOTLAND (3)

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           Scotland is a very small country. It is 274 miles (441 kilome­tres) long. The coastline is so jagged that it adds up to 2000 miles (3218 kilometres). At its widest point it is 154 miles (248 kilo­metres). At its narrowest it is only 25 miles (40 kilometres). Due to Scotland’s narrowness and its deep inlets, it is hardly possible to get far away from the sea.

          Scotland occupies the northern third of the islands of Great Britain. The river Tweed and the Cheviot Hills form Scotland’s southern border with England. The Northwest Channel sepa­rates south-western Scotland from Northern Ireland. The northwest coast faces the Atlantic Ocean. The eastern coast is washed by the North Sea, which separates Scotland from the mainland of Europe.

         Scotland has three main land regions. They are, from north to south, the Highlands, the Central Lowlands and the South­ern Uplands.

         The Highlands is a barren region that covers the northern two thirds of Scotland. There are two major mountain ranges. The highest peak on the British Isles is 4406 feet (1343 meters). It is Ben Nevis. Much of the land in the Highlands is a treeless area called a moor or a heath. Most Highlanders live on the narrow coastal plains. To the south of the Highlands lies the Central Lowlands, a narrow belt comprising about one-tenth of the area of Scotland, but containing the majority of the coun­try’s population.

          The Central Lowlands are traversed by several chains of hills. The Central Lowlands and the Southern Uplands consist of moors broken in some places by rocky cliffs. The tops of the hills are rich pasture land. Many sheep and cattle are raised in the southern uplands.

           Like the climate of the rest of Great Britain, that of Scot­land is subjected to the moderating influences of the surroun­ding seas. As a result of these influences, extreme seasonal variations of climate are rare and temperate winters and cool summers are the outstanding climatic features. Low tempera­tures, however, are common during the winter season in the mountainous districts of the interior.

           The river Clyde is Scotland’s most important river. Ships from the Atlantic Ocean can sail up the Clyde to Glasgow. The Clyde was narrow and shallow until the 1700's when engineers widened and deepened the river to make it navigable. Scot­land’s longest rivers flow eastward into the North Sea.

           Many of Scotland’s rivers flow into wide bays called firths.

           Scotland has hundreds of islands. A large group of islands called the Hebrides lie off the western coast of Scotland’s main­land.

           Population of Scotland was about 5 million people. The highest density of population is in the Central Lowlands, where nearly three-quarters of the Scots live, and the lowest is in the Highlands.

           The most populous city in Scotland is Glasgow. It has the population of about 655 000 people.

           There are two languages spoken. English is generally spo­ken and fewer than 100,000 Scots, who are mainly inhabitants of the Highlands and island groups, also speak the Scottish form of Gaelic.

           Scotland is an integral part of Great Britain. It is repre­sented by 72 members in the House of Commons and by 16 Scot­tish peers in the House of Lords.

          Scottish affairs are administered by a British cabinet min­istry, headed by the secretary of state for Scotland.

 

 

 

QUESTIONS:

 

1. Is Scotland a big country?

2. Is it easy to get far from the see in Scotland?

3. What part of the islands of Great Britain does Scotland occupy?

4. How many main land regions does Scotland have?

5. What is the Highlands?

6. What is the highest peak of the British Isles?

7. What is the Central Lowlands?

8. What climate does Scotland have?

9. What is Scotland’s most important river?

10. What is the population of Scotland?

11. Where is the highest density of population located?

12. Where is the lowest density of population located?

13. What is the most populous city in Scotland?

14. How many Scots speak the Scottish form of Gaelic?

15. Is Scotland an integral part of Great Britain or an in­dependent state?

16. How many representatives does Scotland have in the House of Commons and in the  House of Lords?

 

 

 

VOCABULARY:

 

coast line — береговая линия

to jag — кромсать; делать зазубрины, вырезать зубцами

inlet — узкий морской залив; фьорд, небольшая бухта

to occupy — занимать

border — граница

to separate — отделять, разделять; разъединять

to wash — омывать

the High lands — высокогорье; нагорье, горная местность

the Central Lowlands — центральные низменности

the Southern Uplands — Южное нагорье, Южное плос­когорье

barren — бесплодный, малоплодородный, неплодородный

range — цепь, гряда

moor — участок, поросший вереском; торфянистая мест­ность, торфяник

heath — пустошь, заброшенный участок земли

Highlander — горец, житель нагорья

coastal plain — прибрежная равнина

to comprise — включать, заключать в себе, содержать

to traverse — пересекать, проходить, преодолевать, про­езжать

chains of hills — цепь холмов

rocky cliffs — скалистые утесы

pasture land — пастбища

sheep — овца; баран

cattle — крупный рогатый скот

moderating — смягчая; делая умеренным

surrounding — окружающий

outstanding — выдающийся; знаменитый

to sail up — зд. подниматься / плыть вверх по реке

to flow into — впадать

eastward — на восток, к востоку, в восточном направлении

bay — бухта, залив

the Hebrides — острова Гебриды

density — плотность

inhabitant — житель

the House of Commons — Палата общин

peer — пэр, лорд

the House of Lords — Палата лордов

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