SIGMUND FREUD

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        Sigmund Freud was born on May 6, 1856, in the small Mora­vian town of Freiberg. Ms father was a merchant. His mother was his father’s third wife. In 1860, Freud and his family moved to the city of Vienna. He was almost four.

       In 1873, Freud entered the University of Vienna, planned to study law but instead became a physician.

      Freud was a brilliant student. Although Freud was more interested in studying the philosophical-scientific aspects of the mind. He especially became interested in neurology and physiology. He finally graduated from the University in 1881. Freud’s research was based on close observations and scienti­fic skepticism.

        This skeptical quality was not appreciated by all of his men­tors. One mentor especially, Ernst Brucke, did not like Freud’s ideas at all. He even advised Freud to take a lowly position at the Vienna General Hospital. Freud took this position, but his decision was influenced by certain personal events that would change his life. Freud was secretly engaged to Martha Bernays (one of his sister’s friends), but he did not have enough money to provide a middle class household that his fiancee thought was necessary. In 1886, Freud finally was able to marry and the next nine years he and Martha had six children together. His youngest daughter Anna would later become Freud’s dis­ciple, assistant, and a very good psychoanalyst.

         Before his marriage, Freud worked in Paris with a famous neurologist named Jean-Martin Charcot. Charcot claimed that he can cure mental disorders using hypnosis. This radical idea deeply influenced Freud and his quest to solve the mysteries of the mind.

        In 1896, Freud would first use the word «psychoanalysis». That same year his father died. This loss would deeply affect Freud.

         In 1901, Freud published his Psychopathology of Every­day Life. This book was very popular.

        For the next few years, Freud published more papers about the human psychological condition, in both adults and chil­dren. His ideas were strongly debated throughout the world.

       In 1933, Adolph Hitler was nominated as the chancellor of Germany. Freud however refused to leave Vienna. In 1938, the Germans came into the city of Vienna and it made Freud went to Paris, then he left Paris and went to London.

        On September 23, 1939, Freud asked his physician for a lethal dose of morphine, and would eventually die. His death did not stop the spread of his works on psychoanalysis.

           His theories have already become one of the most popular fields in psychology.

 

 

 

QUESTIONS:

1. What field of medicine did Sigmund Freud especially become interested in?

2. What University did he graduate from?

3. What was Freud’s research based on?

4. Who became Freud’s disciple?

5. What was Charcot’s radical idea that influenced Freud?

6. What were Freud’s books about?

7. Why did Freud have to leave Vienna in 1938?

8. What is Sigmund Freud famous for?

 

 

 

VOCABULARY:

merchant — торговец, купец

to move to — переехать

physician— врач

to graduate from — окончить высшее учебное заведение

research — научное исследование

observation — наблюдение

scientific — научный

to appreciate — ценить

mentor — наставник

to advise — советовать

engage to — помолвленный

fiancee — невеста

disciple — ученик, последователь

psychoanalyst — психоаналитик

to claim — заявлять, утверждать

to cure — лечить

mental disorder — психическое расстройство

to influence — повлиять

quest — поиск

to solve — решить

loss — потеря

to nominate — назначать на пост

chancellor — канцлер

spread — распространение

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