SIR WILLIAM WALLACE

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         When the king of Scotland died without an heir to the throne the nephew of the king, also the king of England nick­named Edward the Longshanks (Edward I) took the throne for himself and completed control of Scotland.

         William Wallace was born in January of the year 1272. He was the second of three sons. He was born in the town of Elerslie, which was in Scotland. His Father Sir Malcolm Wallace held the title of knight but had no political power. Wallace’s Father was involved in a revolt when William was 14 years old. So, he was sent to live with his uncle. His Uncle taught William Latin and French and how to be a swordsman. When William’s father returned from the revolt at Turnberry Band William was 17 years old. Fighting between rival families and rival towns were heating up. Civil War was about to break out in Scotland. There were a number of battles and in one of that battles, in the Battle of Loudon Hill, William’s father was involved and killed. William stayed with his mother for two years until he met Murron Braidfoot and married her in the year 1292.

         There are many tales on how William Wallace became out­law after his marriage. One such is that one day William was fishing at a nearby lake when a group of English soldiers ap­proached him and demanded William give them the fish he had caught. William trying to get food for himself and his wife said they could only take half. The soldiers enraged and lunged at William. But William fought off and killed both of the guards forever becoming an outlaw. In the month of May 1297 a group of English soldiers under the command of the English Sheriff of Lanark were ordered to kill Wallace’s wife. So, Wil­liam started his revolt against England when his wife had been murdered in an attempt to arrest him. Wallace’s act attracted the attention of common folk and Scots nobles alike, all of whom were unwilling to bear Edward the Longshanks laws.

        Rebellion forces under William Wallace were scattered all over Scotland but they all gathered together and met a larger, better equipped English army at the Battle of Sterling. The Battle of Sterling happened a little differently than portrayed in the movie «Brave heart». On September 11, 1297, the En­glish forces were arrayed around Sterling Castle, while the Scots were opposite them. All that separated the two armies was a bridge across the stream. Because of poor commanding, the English were trapped as they crossed the bridge and were slaughtered by the Scots.

        In March of 1298, Wallace was knighted by the Scottish noble man Robert and was appointed guardian of Scotland.

        Edward I finally headed for Scotland with his army in July of 1298. The English army was much larger than the Scots and despite Wallace’s best efforts the English decimated the Scots at the battle of Falkirk. Wallace himself barely escaped and some historians do believe that Robert helped Wallace escape from English soldiers.

        After Scotland’s loss at Falkirk, Wallace resigns as guard­ian of Scotland; no one knows what Wallace did for the next 3 years. But some believe he led mild raids into England that only enraged King Edward I more. Many believe that someone betrayed Wallace, and he was captured near Glasgow. He was immediately sent to London to be executed for treason.

 

 

 

QUESTIONS:

 

1.   Why was Wallace sent to live with his uncle?

2.   How did William Wallace become outlaw after his mar­riage?

3.   What do you know about the Battle of Sterling?

4.    Why were the English defeated then?

5.    What happened during the battle of Falkirk?

6.     What did Wallace do after Scotland’s loss?

 

 

 

VOCABULARY:

 

heir — наследник

nephew — племянник

nickname — прозвище, кличка

knight — рыцарь

to be in volvedin — быть вовлеченным во что-либо

revolt — восстание, мятеж

swordsman — мечник

rival — 1. соперник; 2. соперничающий

nearby — близлежащий, соседний

to approach — приближаться

to demand — требовать

to enrage — приводить в ярость, бешенство

to lunge at — наноситьудар

to fight (past fought, p.p. fought) off — отбить (атаку, нападение)

outlaw — человек вне закона, изгнанник

to murder — убить

attempt  — попытка

to attract attention — привлечь внимание

to bear (past bore, p.p. borne) — терпеть, выносить

to approach — приближаться

rebellion — восстание

to scatter — разбрасывать

to array — выстраивать (войска)

slaughter — устраивать резню; убивать

to decimate — уничтожать массами

barely — едва

to resign — отказываться (от должности)

raid — налет, набег

to betray — предавать         

to execute — казнить

treason — измена

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