UNITED KINGDOM

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           England has existed as a unified entity since the 10th century. The union between England and Wales was enacted under the Statute of Rhuddlan in 1284. In the Act of Union of 1707, England and Scotland agreed to permanent union as Great Britain; the legislative union of Great Britain and Ireland was implemented in 1801, with the adoption of the name the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, but in 1921, the Anglo-Irish treaty formalized a partition of Ireland, although six northern Irish counties remained part of the United Kingdom and became known as Northern Ireland and the current name of the country is the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. It was adopted in 1927.

           Great Britain was the dominant industrial and maritime power of the 19th century. It played a leading role in developing parliamentary democracy and in advancing literature and science.

           At its zenith, the British Empire stretched over one-fourth of the earth’s surface.

           United Kingdom is one of five permanent members of the UN Security Council, a founding member of NATO, and of the Commonwealth, a member of the EU, but still remains outside the European Monetary Union. In 1999 the Scottish Parliament, the National Assembly of Wales, and the Northern Ireland Assembly were established. And it is significant issue in the UK.

           United Kingdom is located in the Western Europe, on the British Islands, including the northern one-sixth of the island of Ireland, between the North Atlantic Ocean and the North Sea, northwest of France. Total territory is 244,820 sq km. It has a border with Ireland. Its climate is temperate, moderated by prevailing southwest winds over the North Atlantic Current. The landscape of UK is mostly rugged hills and low mountains. Nowadays United Kingdom lies near vital North Atlantic sea lanes, only 35 km from France and linked by tunnel under the English Channel.

           The lowest point is Fenland – 4 m; the highest one is Ben Nevis 1,343 m. Its natural resources are coal, petroleum, natural gas, tin, limestone, iron ore, salt, clay, chalk, gypsum, lead.

           Official languages are English, Welsh (about 26% of the population of Wales) and Scottish, as a form of Gaelic (about 60,000 in Scotland).

           Government type is constitutional monarchy. Administrative divisions of UK are the following:

England is divided into 47 boroughs, 36 counties, 10 districts;

North Ireland is divided into 24 districts, 2 cities, 6 counties;

Scotland is divided into 32 council areas;

Wales is divided into 11 county boroughs, 9 counties and dependent areas.

            The Chief of the state is Queen Elizabeth II since 6 February 1952; the Heir of the Crown is Prince Charles, the son of the queen. He was born on 14 November 1948.

            The Head of government is Prime Minister Tony BLAIR since 2 May 1997.

 

 

 

QUESTIONS:

 

1.      How long has England existed as a unified entity?

2.      When was the union between England and Wales enacted?

3.      When was the legislative union of Great Britain and Ireland implemented?

4.      When was the name the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland adapted?

5.      What is Northern Ireland?

6.      Was Great Britain the dominant industrial and maritime power of the 17th century?

7.      Is there a connection between France and Great Britain today?

8.      Is the United Kingdom a member of the European Monetary Union?

9.      Where is the United Kingdom located?

10.  What climate has the United Kingdom?

11.  What landscape has Great Britain?

12.  What are the lowest and the highest points of the country?

13.  What are official languages in Great Britain?

14.  What are the natural resources?

 

 

VOCABULARY:

 

to exist – существовать; находиться в природе, жить

entity – сообщность; объект; организация

to enact – предписывать, определять, устанавливать; вводить закон; постановлять

permanent – постоянный, перманентный

to implement – выполнять, осуществлять; обеспечивать выполнение

adoption – принятие; усвоение

partition – деление, раздел, разделение

county – графство (административно-территориальная единица в Англии)

to remain – оставаться

current – текущий, данный, современный; течение

maritime – морской

zenith – зенит

to stretch – иметь протяжение, простираться, тянуться

the Common wealth – Содружество (свободное объединение независимых государств, не имеющее общего договора или конституции)

the European Monetary Union – Европейский монетный союз

issue – исход, результат (чего-л.); спорный вопрос, предмет спора, разногласие; проблема

border – граница

temperate – умеренный (о климате и т.п.)

to moderate – ослаблять, смягчать

to prevail – преобладать, господствовать, превалировать; доминировать

landscape – ландшафт, пейзаж

rugged – пересеченный, заваленный, труднопроходимый (о местности)

coal – уголь

petroleum – нефть

limestone – известняк

ironore – железная руда

clay – глина, глинозем

chalk – мел

gypsum – гипс

lead – свинец

borough – район; городок, небольшой город

heir – наследник, преемник

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