THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA (1)

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        The USA is the most powerful and highly developed coun­try of the world. It is situated in the central part of the North American continent. Its western coast is washed by the Paci­fic Ocean and its eastern coast is washed by the Atlantic Ocean and the Gulf of Mexico.

          The USA is separated from Canada in the north by the 49th parallel and the Great Lakes, and from Mexico in the south by a line following the Rio Grande River and continuing across the highlands to the Pacific Ocean.

        The total area of the USA is over 9 million square kilome­tres.

       The continental part of the USA consists of the highland regions and two lowland regions. The highland regions are the Appalachian mountains in the east and the Cordillera in the west.

          Between the Cordillera and the Appalachian Montains are the central lowlands which are called the prairie, and the eas­tern lowlands called the Mississippi valley .

The principal rivers of the USA are the Mississippi, the longest river in the world (7,330 km) and the Hudson river.

        The climate of the USA differs greatly from one part of the country to another. The coldest climate is in the northern part, where there is heavy snow in winter and the tempera­ture may go down to 40 degrees below zero. The south has a subtropical climate, with temperature as high as 49 degrees in summer.

         The population of the United States of America is about 250 million people, who are called Americans. Most of the peo­ple live in towns and the population of the countryside is be­coming smaller and smaller.

          For many decades the USA has been the place where lots of people sought refuge from persecution for political or religious beliefs. That’s why in America there are representatives of practically all racial and national groups. There are about 25 million Negrоes in the country and a little over half a million Indians.

        The capital of the USA is Washington. It is situated in the District of Columbia. Washington is a beautiful administra­tive city with practically no industry.

         The USA is a highly developed industrial state. Its agri­culture is also highly mechanized.

        There are coal-mines in the Cordillera Mountains, in the Kansas City region. Iron is mined near the Great Lakes. The USA has rich oil-fields in California, Texas and some other regions. It occupies one of the first places among the coun­tries of the world for production of coal, iron and oil.

          The USA has a highly developed motor-car industry. It would be no exaggeration to say that cars have become the sym­bol of American way of life. The vehicles produced at such com­panies as Ford and the General Motors are known world-wide. The motor-car industry is concentrated in and around Detroit. Ship-building is developed along the Atlantic coast and in San Francisco. The textile industry is to be found in the north-east and in the south of the country.

         The USA has a highly developed railway system. It also has the best network of roads in the world. They are called high­ways.

         The USA is a federal country of 50 states and the District of Columbia. The political life of the country has always been dominated by the two major parties: the Democratic party and the Republican party. At an election time they contest presi­dency and the majority of seats in the Congress. The Congress is the highest legislative body of the country. It consists of two chambers — the House of Representatives and the Senate.

The President, elected by the whole nation for four years, is head of the state and the Government.

 

 

 

QUESTIONS:

  1. What kind of state is the USA?
  2. Where is it situated?
  3. What is the USA washed by in the east and in the west?
  4. What is the USA separated from Canada by?
  5. What is the total area of the country?
  6. What are the principal rivers of the USA?
  7. What is the population of the country?
  8. Where do most people live?
  9. What did many people seek in the USA?
  10. Why are there representatives of all racial and natio­nal groups in America?
  11. Where is the capital of the country situated?
  12. Is the agriculture in America highly mechanized?
  13. What raw materials is America rich in?
  14. What has become the symbol of American way of life?
  15. Where is the motor-car industry situated?
  16. Where is the textile industry to be found?
  17. Has the USA a highly developed railway system?
  18. How many states are there in the USA?
  19. By what party has the political life in America been dominated?
  20. What do the two parties contest at an election time?
  21. What is the highest legislative body of the country?

 

 

 

VOCABULARY:

powerful — мощный

western — западный

eastern — восточный

highland regions — возвышенность

lowland regions — низменность

prairie — прерии

to seek (sought, sought) refuge — искать убежище

persecution — преследование

political and religios beliefs — политические и рели­гиозные убеждения

rich oil fields — богатые месторождения нефти

California — Калифорния

It would be no exaggeration to say — не будет преувели­чением сказать, что

symbol — символ

textile — текстильная промышленность

network of roads — сетьдорог

to contest presidency — оспаривать, претендовать на пост президента

the majority of seats in the Congress — большинство мест в конгрессе

the highest legislative body — высший законодательный орган

chamber — палата

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