US CONGRESS

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         The United States of America is a federal republic consis­ting of 50 states. Each state has its own government («state government»). In some ways the United States is like 50 small countries.

       US government is formed by three branches: legislative power, executive power and judiciary power.

       I am going to tell you about legislative power or the Con­gress.

       So, the Congress is legislative power and is divided into two houses: the Senate and the House of Representatives. The Senate consists of 100 members, two from each state. They are elected to serve for a period of six years, but every two years elections to the senate took place when one/third of its members must be changed or re-elected. Congress meets in the Capitol, Washington. D.C. The main function of the Congress is to declare war and to make laws, which become effective af­ter the President’s approval. Also the Congress ratifies trea­ties and agreements.

        The first Congress met in 1789 in New York City. The mem­bership then consisted of 22 senators and 59 representatives. Today the House of Representatives has 435 members. Elec­tions to the house take place every 2 years. Elections always take place in November, on the first Tuesday, after the first Monday. Americans who aren’t yet 25 years old have no right to be elected to the House of Representatives. Those who are under 30 can’t be elected to the Senate. The main political par­ties in the United States of America are the Democratic Party and the Republican Party. Every election they struggle to oc­cupy the more seats in the government as possible.

        According to the present constitution, proclaimed in 1787 in Philadelphia, the President is head of the government and chief commander of the armed forces. He makes the most im­portant decisions and chooses the ministers, the members of his cabinet. But the President cannot do just what he wants. The Congress must agree first.

        If the Congress makes a law and the President does not agree to it, he can abolish this law or agreement. But if this law were accepted by the majority of both the Senate and the House of representatives (two third of all votes in each house), this bill becomes a law even if it is not accepted by the Presi­dent of the USA.

        That is democracy made in the USA.

 

 

 

QUESTIONS:

  1. How many states are there in the USA?
  2. How many powers are there in the USA government?
  3. What is the Congress?
  4. What houses are there in the Congress?
  5. How many members are there in the Senate?
  6. How many members are there in the House of Represen­tatives?
  7. How long do they serve in the office?
  8. What is the main function of the Congress?
  9. When did the first American Congress meet?
  10. What are the age limitations for service in both the Senate and the House of Representatives?
  11. Who is head of the government and chief commander of the armed forces according to the Constitution?
  12. May the President abolish a law or agreement accepted by the Congress?

 

 

 

VOCABULARY:

to consist of — состоять из

own — свой, собственный

branch — подразделение; ветвь (власти)

legislative power — законодательная власть

executive power — исполнительная власть

judiciary power — судебная власть

Congress — Конгресс

to divide — делить, разделять

house — зд.палата

the Senate — Сенат

the House of Representatives — Палата представителей

elections — выборы

to declare — решительно утверждать, провозглашать, объявлять публично

approval — одобрение; благоприятное мнение; рассмот­рение

to ratify — ратифицировать; одобрять

the Democratic Party — демократическая партия

the Republican Party — республиканская партия

to struggle — бороться

to occupy — занимать

to proclaim — провозглашать; объявлять

chief commander—  главнокомандующий

the armed forces — вооруженные силы

to agree to — быть согласным с чем-то

to abolish — аннулировать, отменять, упразднять, объяв­лять недействительным

bill — законопроект, билль

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