Условные предложения. Сослагательное наклонение

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Упражнение 470

Раскрывая скобки, напишите каждое предложение три раза, образуя условные предложения I, II, и III типов.

 

E.g. If you (to be) free, I (to come) to see you.

If youare free, I shall come to see you.

If you were free, I should come to see you.

If you had been free. I should have come to see you.

If I (to see) her, I (to be) glad.
If I see her, I shall be glad.

If I saw her, I should be glad.

If I had seen her, I should have been glad.

 

1. If you (to be) busy, I (to leave) you alone. 2. If my friend (to come) to see me, I (to be) very glad. 3. If mother (tо buy) а cake, we (tо have) а very nice tea party. 4. If he (to send) an е-mail, we (not tо worry). 5. If you (not to work) systematically, you (tо fail) the exam. 6. If I (tо live) in Moscow, I (tо visit) the Tretyakov Art Gallery every year. 7. If I (tо get) а ticket, I (tо go) to the Philharmonic. 8. If I (to live) near а wood, I (tо gather) а lot of mushrooms. 9. If my father (tо return) early, we (to watch) TV together. 10. If she (to know) English, she (to try) to enter the university.

 

Упражнение 471

Перепишите каждое из следующих предложений дважды, образуя предложения нереального условия:

а) относящиеся к настоящему или будущему (IIтип);

b) относящиеся к прошедшему (Ш тип).

 

1. If I am not too busy, I shall go to the concert. 2. They will all be surprised if I make such а mistake. 3. If he doesn't соmе on time, shall we have to wait for him? 4. If поone comes to help, we shall be obliged to do the work ourselves. 5. If you put on your glasses, you will вееbetter. 6. What shall we do if they are late? 7. Will you be very angry if we don't come? 8. Will he be very displeased if I don't ring him up?

 

Упражнение 475

Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в требующейся форме.

1. If he were not such an outstanding actor, he (not tо have) so many admirers. 2. If you (to give) me your address, I shall write you а letter. 3. If she (not to be) an absent-minded, she would be а much better student. 4. If my sister does not go to the south, we (to spend) the summer in St Petersburg together. 5. If they (not to go) to Moscow last year, they would not have heard that famous musician. 6. If you (not to get) tickets for the Philharmonic, we shall stay at home. 7. If you were not so careless about your health, you (to consult) the doctor. 8. I should be delighted if I (to have) such аbeautiful fur coat. 9. If it (to rain), we shall have to stay at home. 10. If he (to work) hard, he would have achieved great progress. 11. If it is not too cold, I (not to put) on my coat. 12. I (tо write) the essay long ago if you had not disturbed me. 13. If he (not to read) so much, he would not be so clever. 14. If my friend (tо be) at home, he will tell us what to do.

 

Упражнение 476

Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в требующейся форме.

1. If you (not to buy) coffee, we shall drink tea. 2. If he is free tomorrow, he certainly (to come) to our party. 3. My brother would not have missed sо many lessons if he (not to hurt) his leg. 4. If my friend (tо work) in my office, we should meet every day. 5. If you spoke English every day, you (to improve) your language skills. 6. If you get а"five", your mother (to be) happy. 7. If she (to return) earlier, she would have been able to see him before he left. 8. If these shoes were not too big for me, I (to buy) them. 9. If you (tо ring) me up, I shall tell you а secret. 10. If you (to be) а poet, you would write beautiful poetry. 11. If he did not read so much, he (not to know) English literature sо well. 12. If he (tо come) to our house yesterday, he would have met his friend. 13. If he (not to pass) his exam, he will not get а scholarship. 14. If she (not to help) me, I should have been in аvery difficult situation. 15. Му father would have more free time if he (not to read) so many newspapers. 16. If only you had let me know, I (to go) there immediately. 17. If I were а famous singer, I (to get) а lot of flowers every day.

 

Упражнение 477

Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в требующейся форме.

1. If my brother (to be) in trouble, I shall help him, of course. 2. If I don't manage to finish my report today, I (tо stay) at home tomorrow. 3. If she were more careful about her diet, she (not to be) so stout. 4. You would not feel so bad if you (not to smoke) too much. 5. If he (to learn) the poem, he would not have got а bad mark. 6. If you gave me your dictionary for а couple of days, I (to translate) this text. 7. If I (to be) а musician, I should be very happy. 8. If Barbara (tо get) up at half past eight, she would have been late for school. 9. If you had not put the cup on the edge of the table, it (not to get) broken. 10. I should be very glad if he (to come) to my place. 11. If he (to live) in St Petersburg, he would go to the Hermitage every week. 12. If you (tо go) tо the theatre with us last week, you would have enjoyed the evening. 13. You won't understand the rule if you (not to listen) to the teacher. 14. If he weren't such а bookworm, he (not to spend) so much time sitting in the library. 15. I should not have bought the car if my friend (not to lend) me money. 16. If he did not live in St Petersburg, we (not to meet) so often. 17. If he had warned me, I (to do) the work in time.

 

Упражнение 478

Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в требующейся форме.

1. If it (to snow), the children will play snowballs. 2. If I (not tо know) English, I should not be able to enjoy Byron's poetry. 3. I (not to do) it if you did not ask me. 4. If men (to have) nо weapons, would wars be роssible? 5. You will never finish your work if you (to waste) your time like that. 6. If I (to have) his telephone number, I should easily settle this matter with him. 7. If I (to have) this rаге book, I should gladly lend it tо you. 8. The dish would have been much more tasty if she (to be) а better cook. 9. Не never (to phone) you if I hadn't reminded him to do that. 10. Your brother (tо become) much stronger if he took cold baths regularly. 11. If he (to be) more, courageous, he would not be afraid. 12. If the fisherman had been less patient, he (not to catch) so much fish. 13. If you (to put) the ice cream in the freezer, it would not have melted. 14.If I (to know) the result now, I would phone her immediately. 15. If you had let me know yesterday, I (to bring) you my book.

 

Упражнение 479

Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в требующейся форме.

1. If she (to ask) me yesterday, I should certainly have told her all about it. 2. If you (to do) your morning exercises every day, уоur health would be much better. 3. If he is not very busy, he (to agree) to go to the museum with us. 4. If I (not to be) present at the lesson, I should not have understood this difficult rule. 5. If he reads fifty pages every day, his vocabulary (to increase) greatly. 6. If they (to know) it before, they would have taken measures. 7. If I (to get) this book, I shall be happy. 8. If you really loved music, you (to go) to the Philharmonic much more often. 9. If you had not wasted so much time, you (not to miss) the train. 10. If you (not to miss) the train, you would have arrived on time. 11. You (not to miss) the teacher's explanation if you had arrived on time. 12. You would have understood the rule if you (not to miss) the teacher's explanation. 13. If you (to understand) the rule, you would have written the paper successfully. 14. If you had written the paper successfully, you (not to get) а "two". 15. Your mother (not tо scold) you if you had not got а "two". 16. If your mother (not to scold) you, you would have felt happier.

 

Упражнение 480

Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в требующейся форме.

1. If it (to rain) tomorrow, our game will be can celled. 2. If а dog (to bite) her on the leg, she would go straight tо hospital. 3. If he had known it was going to rain, he (to take) his umbrella to work today. 4. If only I (to have) more pocket money, I could buy some new English books. 5. If she hadn't missed the bus, she (not to be) late for work. 6. If 1 (tо live) two hundred years ago, I couldn't have spoken on the telephone. 7. If my daughter did her homework carefully, she (tо get) much better marks. She's really a smart little girl. 8. If his friend (to be) in the mood tо see а film, they would have gone to the cinema last night. 9. If my cactus plant (not tо have) а rаrе disease, it wouldn't have died. 10. If they had remembered your address, they (to send) you а postcard. 11. If Tom saw а car crash, he (to telephone) the police and (to help) the people in the cars. 12. If you are not sure, what to say, you (to have) to guess. 13. If she (not to be) very ill, she wouldn't  have been absent from English classes all last week. 14. If my parents had had good seats, they (to enjoy) the play last night. 15. If а robber (to attack) him in а dark street, he would defend himself. 16. If he hadn't' been so careless, he (not to fall) into this trap. 17. If you (not to smoke), you would feel more energetic. 18. If her alarm clock (to ring), she would have been on time for work this morning.

 

Упражнение 481

Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в требующейся форме.

1. If you were on а hijacked plane, you (to attack) the hijackers? 2. If they were on а hijacked plane, they (to stay) calm and probably (to survive). 3. If my friend had been trying harder, he (to succeed). 4. If I (to live) in 1703, I shouldn't (wouldn't')  have had а computer. 5. If she (to smell) smoke in the middle of the night, she would telephone the fire brigade and run into the street and shout, "Fire!"' 6. If he (to invite), he would have come to the party last Sunday. 7. If the driver in front hadn't stopped suddenly, the accident (not to happen). 8. If you (not tоknow) how to play, my sister will explain the rules to you. 9. If she had told them it was her birthday, they (to give) her а birthday present. 10. If I had more time, I (to read) more books. 11. If their TV had been working, they (to watch) the President's speech last night. 12. If my Т-shirt hadn't been, 100 percent cotton, it (not to shrink) so much. 13. How can you become mоrе popular in your class: if you (tо get) the top mark in mathematics or English or if you (to be) good at sports? 14. If they (to go) by car, they would have saved time. 15. If I (to be) а bird, I would' be able to fly. 16. If he (to bring) his book home, he would have done his homework last night. 17. If my mother (to win) а million pounds, she would spend it as fast as possible. 18. If you had been feeling well, you (to be) in class yesterday.

 

Упражнение 482

Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в требующейся форме.

1. I am sorry that you do not read English novels; if you (to read) them, I (to lend) you some very interesting ones. 2. You say that you did not read yesterday's papers; if you (to read) them, you (tо see) the announcement of Professor Х's coming to our town. 3. Не is not ill: if he (tо be) ill, he (not to play) tennis so much. 4. Не was not ill last week: if he (tо be) ill, he (not to take) part in the football match. 5. How slippery it is! If it (not to rain), it (not to be) so slippery. 6. I am glad I was able to attend the lecture yesterday. You (to be) displeased if I (not to come)? 7. Let's take а taxi to the railway station: we have а lot of luggage. If we (not to have) so much luggage, we (to walk). 8. Stop working and let's go inside: it is too dark. If the evening (not to be) sо dark, we (to continue) the work. 9. I don't believe you: you only say that you want to know languages. If you (to be) really interested in languages, you (to study) them.

 

Упражнение 483

Образуйте условные предложения.

1. Не is busy and does not come to see us. If ...  2. The girl did not study well last year and received bad marks. If ... 3. Не broke his bicycle and so he did not go to the country. If ... 4. Не speaks English badly: he has nо practice. If ... 5. I had а bad headache yesterday, that's why I did not cоmе to see you. If ... 6. The ship was sailing near the coast, that's why it struck а rock. If ... 7. Не was not in town, there he was not present at our meeting. If ... 8. The pavement was so slippery that I fell and hurt my leg. If ... 9. The sea is rough, and we cannot sail to the island. If ... 10. They made а fire, and the frightened wolves ran away. If ... 11. It is late, and I have to go home. If ... 12. I was expecting my friend to соmе, that's why I could not go to the cinema with you. If ... 13. Не always gets top marks in mathematics because it is his favourite subject and he works а lot on it. If ... 14. I did not translate the article yesterday because I had nо dictionary. If ...  15. We lost our way because the night was pitch-dark. If ... 16. The box was so heavy that I could not carry it. That's why I took а taxi. If ...

 

Упражнение 484

Образуйте условные предложения.

1. The travellers had nо camera with them, so they could not take photos of the beautiful scenery. If ...  2. There was nо sugar left, so we had to go to the shop late in the evening. If ...    3. This house is very nice and comfortable, but it is not very good for living because it is situated close to а chemical plant and the air around is very bad. If ... 4. Не is an excellent specialist, but I cannot ask his advice because I am not acquainted with him. If ... 5. You cannot enjoy this merry birthday party because you have а toothache. If ... 6. You know the material well enough, but you are very absent-minded, and that's why you always make many mistakes. If ... 7. You  did not ring mе up, so I did not know you were in trouble. If ... 8. You left the child alone in the room, so he hurt himself. If ... 9. They spent а year in the tropics, so they got very sun-tanned.   If ... 10. It rained heavily, so we got drenched to the skin. If ...  11. Why didn't you watch the cat? It ate аll the fish. If ... 12. А huge black cloud appeared from behind the forest, so we had to turn back and hurry home. If ... 13. We shall not go to see them because it is very late. If ... 14. Naturally she was angry, because you were in her way. If ...

 

Упражнение 485

Раскройте скобки, употребляя требующуюся форму сослагательного наклонения после I wish.

1. I wish (to have) а season ticket to the Philharmonic next winter. 2. I wish I (to consult) the teacher when I first felt that mathematics was too difficult for me. 3. I love sunny weather. I wish it (to be) warm and fine all the year round. 4. I wish I (not to lend) Nick my watch: he has broken it. 5. I wish you (to send) word as soon as you arrive. 6. I wish I (not to have) to do my homework every day. 7. I wish you (to go) skiing with me yesterday: I had such а good time! 8. I wish I (to know) Spanish. 9. I wish (not to drink) so much coffee in the evening: I could not sleep half the night. 10. I wish you (to read) more in future. 11. I wish I never (to suggest) this idea. 12. I wish (to be) at yesterday's party: it must have been very merry. 13. I wish we (to meet) again next summer. 14. Don't you wish you (to see) that performance before? 15. They wished they (not to sее) this horrible scene again. 16. The unfortunate pupil wished he (not to forget) tо learn the rule.

 

Упражнение 486

Раскройте скобки, употребляя требующуюся форму сослагательного наклонения после I wish.

1. I wish (can) give up smoking. 2. She wishes she (to see) him at yesterday's party. 3. I wish I (to pass) my driving test last Monday. 4. I wish I (not to forget) my friend's birthday yesterday. 5. The boy is sad. Не wishes he (not to break) the window. 6. My aunt wishes she (to stay) at home last weekend. 7. Не wishes he (to know) something about cars. 8. I wish it (to be) sunny.  9. I wish it (to be) sunny during our picnic last Saturday. 10. She wishes she (to live) in the Crimea. 11. My friend wishes he (not to do) that last week. 12. I wish (to bring) my camera last summer. 13. I wish I (can) tell the future. 14. Do you wish you (to be) in the Guinness Book of Records? 15. Some people wish they (can) appear on аTV game show and become famous. 16. She often wishes things (to be) different.

 

Упражнение 487

Перефразируйте следующие предложения, употребляя I wish.

 Е.g.            It's аpity you are ill.

                   I wish you were not ill.

 

1. Unfortunately they won't return before Christmas. 2. The student was sorry he had not studied the material better and had shown such poor knowledge at the exam. 3. It's аpity that you did not send for us last night. 4. It`s а pity you are not with us these days. 5. What а pity you don't know enough physics. 6. Не was sorry not to have had enough time to finish his paper. 7. It's а pity we shan't be able to reach home before tea time. 8. I am sorry I made you upset by telling you this news. 9. My friend regrets not having gone to university. 10. My friend regrets not having entered the university.

 

Упражнение 488

Переведите на английский язык, употребляя I wish.

1.  

а) Жаль, что он такой легкомысленный.

б) Жаль, что он недостаточно серьезен.

2.  

а) Я теперь жалею, что не послушал его совета.

б) Я теперь жалею, что последовал его совету.

3. 

а) Жаль, что вы пришли так поздно.

б) Жаль, что вы не пришли пораньше.

4. 

а) Обидно, что мы ушли до его прихода.

б) Обидно, что мы не дождались его прихода.

5.  

а) К сожалению, они еще ничего не знают.

б) К сожалению, они уже знают об этом.

 

Упражнение 489

Переведите на английский язык, употребляя I wish.

1. Ах, если бы вы сказали ей об этом в прошлое воскресенье! 2. Хорошо бы у нас сейчас были каникулы. 3. Если бы он пришел сегодня вечером! 4. Мы пожалели, что не попросили его совета. 5. Жаль, что вы отказались принять участие в пикнике. 6. Жаль, что вас не интересует этот предмет. 7. Мы бы хотели, чтобы вы упомянули эти факты. 8. Жаль, что мы опоздали на поезд. 9. Жаль, что вы включили телевизор так поздно. 10. Если бы я был свободен сейчас! 11. Жаль, что и вчера у меня было мало времени. 12. Хорошо бы вы написали ей об этом сами. 13. Жаль, что вы не обратили внимания на его предупреждение. 14. Он пожалел, что бросил университет. 15. Жаль, что уже поздно идти туда. 16. Ах, если бы я пришел на вокзал вовремя! 17. Жаль, что вы не читали такую прекрасную книгу. 18. Жаль, что она делает так много ошибок в речи. 19. Жаль, что вы не побывали на выставке. 20. Жаль, что я узнал об этом так поздно. 21. Как жаль, что мы не застали Колю дома. 22. Она сожалела, что не рассказала нам эту историю раньше.

 

Упражнение 490

Образуйте условные предложения. Не забудьте о смешанных случаях.

1. I shall go to the dentist because I have а toothаchе. If ... 2. Не is groaning with pain now because he did not go to the dentist to have his tooth filled. If ... 3. She doesn't go tоthe clinic because she does not need any treatment. If ... 4. I shan't go to see the play as I was present at the dress rehearsal. If ... 5. Не went to Moscow specially to hear this famous singer because he is fond of him. If ... 6. We did not go to the cafeteria to have аglass of lemonade because we were not thirsty. If ... 7. She could not mend her dress herself because she had nо needle. If… 8. Неi s not а first-class sportsman now because hеdid not train enough last year. If ... 9. The pupils were active because they wanted tо understand this difficult material. If ... 10. The pupils did not understand the homework because they were in attentive. If ... 11. The pupils worked hard and did well in their exams. If ... 12. She won't try to enter the foreign languages department because she is not good at foreign languages. If ...

 

Упражнение 491

Переведите на английский язык.

1. Он так изменился! Если бы вы его встретили, вы бы его не узнали. 2. Если бы я был на вашем месте, я бы посоветовался с родителями. 3. Если бы сейчас подошел трамвай, мы бы не опоздали. 4. Если бы он знал, что это вас расстроит, он был бы осторожнее. 5. Если бы вы мне помогли решить эту задачу, я был бы вам очень благодарен. 6. Жаль, что нам раньше не пришло в голову поискать книгу в библиотеке. Мы бы сделали работу вовремя и сейчас были бы уже свободны. 7. Жаль, что у нас было так мало уроков. Если бы мы больше поработали, мы бы лучше знали язык. 8. Если бы он регулярно не ходил на тренировки, он не добился бы такого успеха на состязаниях. 9. Если бы ты предупредил меня заранее, я бы уже был в Москве. 10. Жаль, что она уже ушла. Если бы ты позвонил раньше, она была бы сейчас здесь. 11. Если бы он был умнее, он бы не пошел вчера на вечеринку. 12. Если бы она не прислала вчера это письмо, мой брат был бы сейчас дома. 13. Что бы мы сейчас делали, если бы мама не испекла вчера пирог. 14. Жаль, что вы не слышали музыку Рахманинова. Если бы вы ее слышали, вы бы знали, какой это замечательный композитор. 15. Я уверен, что все были бы рады, если бы вечеринка состоялась.

 

Упражнение 492

Переведите на английский язык.

1. Если бы я знал французский, я бы уже давно поговорил с ней. 2. Если бы я знал немецкий язык, я бы читал Гете в оригинале. 3. Если бы я жил близко, я бы чаще заходил к вам. 4. Если бы вы не прервали нас вчера, мы бы закончили работу в срок. 5. Если бы он не следовал советам врача, он бы не поправился так быстро. 6. Если бы он не был талантливым художником, его картину не приняли бы на выставку. 7. Если бы вы тогда послушались моего совета, вы бы не были сейчас в таком затруднительном положении.   8. Если бы я не был так занят в эти дни, я бы помог тебе вчера. 9. Если бы он не был так близорук, он бы узнал меня вчера в театре. 10. Она здорова. Если бы она была больна, ее брат сказал бы мне об этом вчера. 11. Вы бы много знали, если бы регулярно читали этот журнал. 12. Если бы я узнала об этом раньше, то не сидела бы сейчас дома. 13. Если бы мои родители были богаты, они бы уже давно купили мне машину. 14. Она очень талантлива. Хорошо бы родители купили ей пианино. Если она начнет играть сейчас, она будет выдающимся музыкантом.

 

 

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